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Generalizability assessment papers

Source PMID Title Disease Category A Priori/A Posteriori Score/Non-Score Tutorial/Method
PubMed 24926156 The use of propensity scores to assess the generalizability of results from randomized trials Not specified A Posteriori Score Propensity score weighting/matching
PubMed 11870014 Are subjects in pharmacological treatment trials of depression representative of patients in routine clinical practice? Mental disorder A Priori Non-score What is the percentage of patients who would be excluded by each exclusion criterion?
Cochrane 12153370 Representation of the elderly, women, and minorities in heart failure clinical trials Cardiovascular diseases A Posteriori Non-score How many elderly, women, and minorities are excluded by trials?
PubMed 14628985 How many subjects with major depressive disorder meet eligibility requirements of an antidepressant efficacy trial? Mental disorder A Priori Non-score List the major reasons for exclusion
PubMed 14770052 Exclusion criteria used in antidepressant efficacy trials: consistency across studies and representativeness of samples included. Mental disorder A Priori Non-score List the commonly used psychiatric exclusion criteria
PubMed 15705630 Are clinical trials in rheumatoid arthritis generalizable to routine practice? A re-evaluation of trial entry criteria. Musculoskeletal disease A Priori Non-score Review the eligibility criteria of trilas on rheumatoid arthritis
PubMed 15876909 Effect of study criteria on recruitment and generalizability of the results. Not specified A Priori Non-score What is the number of patients who would meet usua eligibility criteria of antipsychotic trials?
PubMed 16227797 Eligibility criteria for HIV clinical trials and generalizability of results: the gap between published reports and study protocols. HIV/AIDS A Priori Non-score How many women, and minorities are excluded by each criterion in 32 NIH-funded HIV trials?
CINAHL 16339480 Potential consequences for recruitment, power, and external validity of requirements for additional risk factors for eligibility in randomized controlled trials in secondary prevention of stroke. Cardiovascular diseases A Priori Non-score Evaluate the eligibility criteria in stroke prevention trials.
PsycINFO 16569712 Randomized Controlled Trials: Do They Have External Validity for Patients With Multiple Comorbidities? Not specified A Priori Non-score Assess the multiple chronic conditions of patients who are eligible for 5 RCTs
PsycINFO 17502778 Relevance of exclusion criteria in antidepressant clinical trials: A replication study. Mental disorder A Priori Non-score How many patients would be excluded by antidepressant RCT
PubMed 18438906 Assessment of unmet needs and the lack of generalizability in the design of randomized controlled trials for scleroderma treatment. Skin diseases A Priori Non-score Determine the proportion of patients with SSc who would theoretically be eligible for SSC trials
PubMed 18501096 Restrictive eligibility limits access to newer therapies in non-small-cell lung cancer: the implications of Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group 4599 Cancer A Priori Non-score Determine the proportion of patients with newly evaluated advanced NSCLC seen at Fox Chase Cancer Center (FCCC) who would have been eligible for ECOG 4599
PubMed 18557666 Generalizability of clinical trial results for major depression to community samples: results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Mental disorder A Priori Non-score Applied standard set of exclusion criteria in trials on MDE to 2001-2002 NESARC data and assessed the percentage of patients who would be excluded.
PubMed 18577549 Learning from past mistakes: assessing trial quality, power and eligibility in non-renal systemic lupus erythematosus randomized controlled trials. Musculoskeletal disease A Priori Non-score The inclusion/exclusion criteria were compared with an SLE database to determine the proportion of patients from the database who would theoretically be eligible for these trials.
PsycINFO 18579319 Generalizability of clinical trials for alcohol dependence to community samples. Drug or alcohol abuse A Priori Non-score Assessed the proportion of community dwelling adults with cannabis dependence who would have been eligible for a typical cannabis dependence treatment study.
PubMed 19057955 Analysis of patient selection and external validity in the Swedish contribution to the COLOR trial. Surgery A Posteriori Non-score Assessed how many patients were excluded post randomization
PubMed 19342462 Selection criteria and generalizability within the counterfactual framework: explaining the paradox of antidepressant-induced suicidality? Mental disorder A Priori Non-score A counterfactual model is developed to represent the selection process explicitly. This simple extension of the standard counterfactual model is used to explore the implications of restrictive exclusion criteria intended to eliminate high-risk individuals.
PubMed 20547574 Generalizing evidence from randomized clinical trials to target populations: The ACTG 320 trial. HIV/AIDS misc / PATE Non-score The proposed method standardizes observed trial results to a specified target population and thereby provides information regarding the generalizability of trial results.
PsycINFO 21078225 The generalizability of antidepressant efficacy trials to routine psychiatric out-patient practice. Mental disorder A Priori Non-score Eligibility was assessed by stepwise application of commonly used exclusion criteria. Influence of eligibility on treatment outcome was investigated in a subsample of the 1653 patients who had at least one follow-up assessment (n = 626). Eligible and non-eligible patients were compared on proportion of response (50% reduction) and remission on MADRS
Cochrane 22459203 Generalisability of the results of the Dutch-Belgian randomised controlled lung cancer CT screening trial (NELSON): does self-selection play a role? Cancer A Posteriori Non-score Background characteristics were compared between male respondents on the first questionnaire (n = 92,802), eligible subjects among them (n = 18,570) and those randomised (n = 10,627) and Statistics Netherlands 2002-2005 (SN) (n = 5289) or GLOBE study-data (Dutch cohort) (n = 696).
PubMed 22495990 Generalizability of clinical trial results for generalized anxiety disorder to community samples. Mental disorder A Priori Non-score We applied a standard set of eligibility criteria representative of GAD pharmacological and psychotherapy clinical trials to all adults with past 12 months GAD (n = 894), and to a subgroup of participants seeking treatment (n = 329). Our aim was to assess how many participants with GAD would fulfil typical eligibility criteria
PubMed 23060323 Eligibility criteria in randomized phase II and III adjuvant and neoadjuvant breast cancer trials: not a significant barrier to enrollment. Cancer A Priori Non-score Proportions of cases with 'not met' eligibility criteria were assessed for each category in each trial.
PubMed 23075287 External validity of randomized controlled trials of glycaemic control and vascular disease: how representative are participants? Endocrine disease A Priori Non-score Inclusion and exclusion criteria from each trial were applied to data on the population of people with a diagnosis of Type 2 diabetes living in Scotland in 2008 (n = 180,590) in a population-based cross-sectional study and the number and proportion of people eligible for each trial was determined.
PsycINFO 23137143 The generalizability of psychotherapy efficacy trials in major depressive disorder: An analysis of the influence of patient selection in efficacy trials on symptom outcome in daily practice. Mental disorder A Priori Non-score Investigated the influence of exclusion criteria on symptom outcome by multivariate regression models in a sample of patients suffering from MDD according to the MINIplus from a routine clinical practice setting
PubMed 23242482 Representativeness of the dabigatran, apixaban and rivaroxaban clinical trial populations to real-world atrial fibrillation patients in the United Kingdom: a cross-sectional analysis using the General Practice Research Database. Cardiovascular diseases A Priori Non-score Assessed the atrial fibrillation patients who would be eligible for anticoagulant treatment trials
PubMed 23553373 The use of propensity scores and observational data to estimate randomized controlled trial generalizability bias. Not specified A Priori Non-score Propensity score weighting/matching
PubMed 23561233 Generalizability of clinical trial results for bipolar disorder to community samples: findings from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Mental disorder A Priori Non-score Determine the proportion of participants with bipolar depression or acute mania who would have been excluded from a clinical trial by typical eligibility criteria
PubMed 23617533 Not-in-trial simulation I: Bridging cardiovascular risk from clinical trials to real-life conditions. Cardiovascular diseases A Priori Non-score Determine the number of patients that would be excluded from trials.
PubMed 24475060 The real world mental health needs of heart failure patients are not reflected by the depression randomized controlled trial evidence. Cardiovascular diseases A Priori Non-score Patients were evaluated against the most common RCT exclusion criteria personality disorder, high suicide risk, cognitive impairment, psychosis, alcohol or substance abuse or dependency, bi-polar depression
PubMed 24621557 Why do GPs exclude patients from participating in research? An exploration of adherence to and divergence from trial criteria. Not specified A Priori Non-score Determine the proportion of patients excluded on account of trial eligibility compared with other reasons, and to explore the impact of such exclusions on the management and generalizability of RCTs
PubMed 25154011 Are participants in pharmacological and psychotherapy treatment trials for social anxiety disorder representative of patients in real-life settings? Mental disorder A Priori Non-score Applied a standard set of exclusion criteria representative of pharmacological and psychotherapy clinical trials to all adults with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, diagnosis of SAD. They aim to assess how many participants with SAD would fulfill typical eligibility criteria.
PubMed 25307417 Assessing the generalizability of randomized trial results to target populations. Not specified misc / PATE Non-score Propensity score weighting/matching
PubMed 25580674 Generalizability of pharmacological and psychotherapy clinical trial results for borderline personality disorder to community samples. Mental disorder A Priori Non-score Applied a standard set of exclusion criteria representative of pharmacological and psychotherapy clinical trials to all adults with a DSM-IV diagnosis of BPD. The aim was to assess how many participants with BPD would not fulfill typical eligibility criteria.
PubMed 26747392 Exclusion of Gastrointestinal Cancer Patients With Prior Cancer From Clinical Trials: Is This Justified? Cancer A Priori Non-score How many patients would be excluded by gastrointestinal cancer trials?
PubMed 26866293 Generalizability of Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis in Biologic Agent Clinical Trials. Musculoskeletal disease A Priori Non-score Patients at a single clinical encounter were assessed for overall trial eligibility as well as eligibility across 3 domains: demographics, disease activity, and medication exposure
PubMed 27379465 Generalizability of Pharmacologic and Psychotherapy Clinical Trial Results for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder to Community Samples. Mental disorder A Priori Non-score Applied a standard set of exclusion criteria representative of pharmacologic and psychotherapy clinical trials to all adults with a DSM-IV diagnosis of PTSD in the previous 12 months (n = 1,715) and then to a subsample of participants seeking treatment (n = 366). Our aim was to assess how many participants with PTSD would fulfill typical eligibility criteria.
PubMed 27491758 Generalizing Treatment Effect Estimates From Sample to Population: A Case Study in the Difficulties of Finding Sufficient Data. Not specified misc / PATE Non-score We use a case study to illustrate how to generalize treatment effect estimates from a randomized trial sample to a target population, in particular comparing the sample of children in a randomized trial of a supplemental program for Head Start centers (
PubMed 27663386 Eligibility of real-life patients with COPD for inclusion in trials of inhaled long-acting bronchodilator therapy. Respiratory diseases A Priori Non-score Eligibility was calculated for each RCT by applying these criteria to a uniquely representative, well-characterised population of patients with COPD from the Optimum Patient Care Research Database
Cochrane 27844227 A novel use of the Spine Tango registry to evaluate selection bias in patient recruitment into clinical studies: an analysis of patients participating in the Lumbar Spinal Stenosis Outcome Study (LSOS) Musculoskeletal disease A Posteriori Non-score Patient records and imaging were evaluated in relation to the admission criteria for LSOS to identify those who would have been eligible for participation but were not enrolled
PubMed 28088058 Has the symptom severity inclusion requirement narrowed the definition of major depressive disorder in antidepressant efficacy trials? Mental disorder A Priori Non-score Compared the distribution of DSM-IV MDD criteria scores in patients who scored at or above or below the 3 cutoff scores on the HAMD most commonly used for inclusion in an AET
PubMed 28416124 Assessment of the External Validity of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network and European Society for Medical Oncology Guidelines for Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer in a Population of Patients Aged 80 Years and Older. Cancer A Priori Non-score matched a cohort of NSCLC patients aged older than 80 years from the Moffitt Cancer Center database with the studies' eligibility criteria to check their qualification for at least 2 studies
PubMed 28535275 Transportability of trial results using inverse odds of sampling weights. Not specified misc / PATE Non-score an inverse odds weighting approach that can easily operationalize transportability
PubMed 29097612 Generalizability of Clinical Trial Results for Adolescent Major Depressive Disorder. Mental disorder A Priori Non-score To assess the generalizability of adolescent clinical trials for MDD, we applied a standard set of eligibility criteria representative of clinical trials to all adolescents in the National Comorbidity Survey
Cochrane 29462814 Generalizability of Findings from a Randomized Controlled Trial of Fish Oil Supplementation for Attenuating Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms among Rescue Workers in Japan Mental disorder A Posteriori Non-score
CINAHL 29915956 Generalizability of clinical trials of advanced melanoma in the real-world, population-based setting. Cancer A Priori Non-score Based on eligibility criteria as described in registration trials of vemurafenib (Vem) and ipilimumab (Ipi), we classified patients into trial-eligible and ineligible and those treated and untreated with these agents
CINAHL 29936654 Eligibility of real-world patients with chemo-refractory, K-RAS wild-type, metastatic colorectal cancer for palliative intent regorafenib monotherapy. Cancer A Priori Non-score Examined treatment attrition rates and eligibility for regorafenib in routine practice
PubMed 30096830 Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria of Clinical Trials for Insomnia. Sleep disorder A Priori Non-score The current two-part study examined (1) the currently applied eligibility criteria in Phase II and III RCTs examining sleep medication; (2) how these criteria match with the insomnia population as a whole; and (3) how inclusion rates can be changed by an adaptation of these criteria.
CINAHL 30175440 Eligibility for clinical trials is limited for youth with type 2 diabetes: Insights from the Pediatric Diabetes Consortium T2D Clinic Registry. Endocrine disease A Priori Non-score Utilized Pediatric Diabetes Consortium (PDC) T2D Registry enrollment data to estimate the percentage of patients who would be excluded from current T2D trials based on out-of-range HbA1c levels.
PubMed 30218805 Treatment of Unruptured Brain Arteriovenous Malformations: A Single-Center Experience of 86 Patients and a Critique of the A Randomized Trial of Unruptured Brain Arteriovenous Malformations (ARUBA) Trial. Neuronal diseases A Posteriori Non-score All cases of treated brain AVMs from 2004 to 2017 at our institution were retrospectively reviewed and included in the analysis if they met ARUBA trial inclusion criteria
Cochrane 30564154 The Representativeness of Participants With Severe Mental Illness in a Psychosocial Clinical Trial Mental disorder A Posteriori Non-score Utilized an anonymised case register to determine if participants in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of a novel psychosocial health intervention aiming to improve physical health in SMI had similar severity of illness to eligible non-participants
PubMed 4020412 Selection bias in clinical trials. Not specified A Posteriori Non-score Comparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed 8690832 Subject selection biases in clinical trials: data from a multicenter schizophrenia treatment study. Mental disorder A Posteriori Non-score Comparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed 10203081 Improved survival and reduction in local failure rates after preoperative radiotherapy: evidence for the generalizability of the results of Swedish Rectal Cancer Trial. Cancer Both Non-score Comparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed 10470428 Small-cell lung cancer: patients included in clinical trials are not representative of the patient population as a whole. Cancer A Posteriori Non-score Comparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed 10506672 Generalizing from a controlled trial: the effects of patient preference versus randomization on the outcome of inpatient versus outpatient chronic pain management. Pain A Posteriori Non-score Comparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed 10891631 Generalizability of project MATCH: a comparison of clients enrolled to those not enrolled in the study at one aftercare site. Not specified Both Non-score Comparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed 11053697 Clinical trials of unfractionated heparin and low-molecular-weight heparin in addition to aspirin for the treatment of unstable angina pectoris: do the results apply to all patients? Cardiovascular diseases A Priori Non-score Comparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed 10751862 Prostate specific antigen response to mitoxantrone and prednisone in patients with refractory prostate cancer: prognostic factors and generalizability of a multicenter trial to clinical practice. Cancer A Posteriori Non-score Comparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed 11165726 The generalizability of trial data; a comparison of beta-blocker trial participants with a prospective cohort of women taking beta-blockers in pregnancy. Pregnancy A Posteriori Non-score Comparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed 11434951 Generalisability of clinical trials in otitis media with effusion. Ear disease A Posteriori Non-score Comparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed 11470387 Generalizability of trial results based on randomized versus nonrandomized allocation of OME infants to ventilation tubes or watchful waiting. Ear disease A Posteriori Non-score Comparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed 11694202 Generalizability of findings from a chewing tobacco cessation clinical trial. Smoking A Posteriori Non-score Comparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed 11737343 How generalizable are the results of large randomized controlled trials of antiretroviral therapy? HIV/AIDS A Posteriori Non-score Comparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed 12694711 External validity of a randomised clinical trial of temporomandibular disorders: analysis of the patients who refused to participate in research. Musculoskeletal disease A Posteriori Non-score Comparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed 12701762 Representativeness of trial populations: an example from a trial of adenotonsillectomy in children. Sleep disorder A Posteriori Non-score Comparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed 12701935 Does clinical trial subject selection restrict the ability to generalize use and cost of health services to "real life" subjects? Respiratory diseases A Posteriori Non-score Comparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed 15229421 Assessing clinical generalizability in sedation studies of upper GI endoscopy. Endocrine disease A Posteriori Non-score Comparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed 15334432 Differences between participants and nonparticipants in an exercise trial for adults with rheumatoid arthritis. Musculoskeletal disease A Posteriori Non-score Comparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed 15639683 External validity of randomised controlled trials: "to whom do the results of this trial apply?". Not specified A Posteriori Non-score Comparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed 15695979 Population characteristics in cervical cancer trials: search for external validity. Cancer A Posteriori Non-score Comparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed 15994721 Generalizability of antidepressant efficacy trials: differences between depressed psychiatric outpatients who would or would not qualify for an efficacy trial. Mental disorder A Priori Non-score Comparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed 16225942 Selection bias of elderly patients with chronic angina referred for catheterization. Cardiovascular diseases A Posteriori Non-score Comparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed 16639738 Generalizability of cancer clinical trial results: prognostic differences between participants and nonparticipants. Cancer A Posteriori Non-score Comparing populations in clinical studies
PsycINFO 17053977 Empirical evaluation of the generalizability of the sample from the Multimodal Treatment Study of ADHD. Mental disorder A Posteriori Non-score Comparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed 17210880 External validity of clinical trials in acute myocardial infarction. Cardiovascular diseases Both Non-score Comparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed 17253599 External validity of ST elevation myocardial infarction trials: the Zwolle studies. Cardiovascular diseases A Posteriori Non-score Comparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed 17453387 To whom do the results of this trial apply?" External validity of a randomized controlled trial involving 130 patients scheduled for primary total hip replacement. Musculoskeletal disease A Posteriori Non-score Comparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed 17896305 Comparison of survival among eligible patients not enrolled versus enrolled in the Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Study (COMS) randomized trial of pre-enucleation radiation of large choroidal melanoma. Cancer A Posteriori Non-score Comparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed 18381709 Generalizing from clinical trial data: a case study. The risk of suicidality among pediatric antidepressant users. Mental disorder A Posteriori Non-score Comparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed 18414962 Lifetime characteristics of participants and non-participants in a smoking cessation trial: implications for external validity and public health impact. Smoking A Posteriori Non-score Comparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed 18619799 Randomized patients in IBS research had different disease characteristics compared to eligible and recruited patients. Digestive diseases A Posteriori Non-score Comparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed 19116800 Characteristics of individuals with insomnia who seek treatment in a clinical setting versus those who volunteer for a randomized controlled trial. Sleep disorder A Posteriori Non-score Comparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed 19287330 Examination of external validity in randomized controlled trials for adjuvant treatment of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Cancer Both Non-score Comparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed 19339358 Can phase III trial results of antidepressant medications be generalized to clinical practice? A STAR*D report. Mental disorder A Posteriori Non-score Comparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed 19556533 Patients enrolled in large randomized clinical trials of antiplatelet treatment for prevention after transient ischemic attack or ischemic stroke are not representative of patients in clinical practice: the Netherlands Stroke Survey. Cardiovascular diseases A Priori Non-score Comparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed 19631869 Under-representation of women and ethnic minorities in vascular surgery randomized controlled trials. Surgery A Posteriori Non-score Comparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed 20016742 Generalizability of toxicity data from oncology clinical trials to clinical practice: toxicity of irinotecan-based regimens in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. Cancer A Posteriori Non-score Comparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed 20589596 Trials assessing parmacotherapeutic management of aggression in psychiatric patients: comparability with clinical practice. Mental disorder A Priori Non-score Comparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed 20670761 Clinical characteristics of patients undergoing surgical ventricular reconstruction by choice and by randomization. Cardiovascular diseases A Posteriori Non-score Comparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed 20798576 Patients with borderline personality disorder not participating in an RCT: are they different? Mental disorder A Posteriori Non-score Comparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed 20816030 Representativeness of participants in a clinical trial for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder? Comparison with adults from a large observational study. Mental disorder Both Non-score Comparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed 21059426 Comparison of baseline characteristics, management and outcome of patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome in versus not in clinical trials. Cardiovascular diseases A Posteriori Non-score Comparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed 21078416 The generalizability of participants in Veterans Affairs Cooperative Studies Program 474, a multi-site randomized cardiac bypass surgery trial. Cardiovascular diseases A Posteriori Non-score Comparing populations in clinical studies
Cochrane 21200334 Comparison of Characteristics and Outcomes of Patients Undergoing Saphenous Vein Graft Stenting Who Were or Were Not nrolled in the Stenting of Saphenous Vein Grafts andomized Controlled Trial Cardiovascular diseases A Posteriori Non-score Comparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed 21325996 Age, exclusion criteria, and generalizability of randomized trials enrolling kidney transplant recipients. Kidney disease Both Non-score Comparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed 21565848 Evaluating the 'all-comers' design: a comparison of participants in two 'all-comers' PCI trials with non-participants. Cardiovascular diseases A Posteriori Non-score Comparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed 21775882 Cancer trials versus the real world in the United States. Cancer A Posteriori Non-score Comparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed 21956723 ALS clinical trials: do enrolled patients accurately represent the ALS population? Mental disorder A Posteriori Non-score Comparing populations in clinical studies
PsycINFO 22201327 Racial/ethnic differences in adults in randomized clinical trials of binge eating disorder. Ear disease A Posteriori Non-score Comparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed 22316122 To whom do the results of the multicenter, randomized, controlled INSECT trial (ISRCTN 24023541) apply?--assessment of external validity. Surgery A Posteriori Non-score Comparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed 22343692 Patients enrolled in randomized controlled trials do not represent the inflammatory bowel disease patient population. Digestive diseases A Priori Non-score Comparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed 22371462 Enrollment of extremely low birth weight infants in a clinical research study may not be representative. Neonatal diseases A Posteriori Non-score Comparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed 23092978 Sampling bias in an internet treatment trial for depression. Mental disorder A Posteriori Non-score Comparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed 23242479 The older the better: are elderly study participants more non-representative? A cross-sectional analysis of clinical trial and observational study samples. Not specified A Posteriori Non-score Comparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed 23517248 Comparison of treatment outcome in metastatic colorectal cancer patients included in a clinical trial versus daily practice in The Netherlands. Cancer Both Non-score Comparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed 23633161 Generalizability in the family-to-family education program randomized waitlist-control trial. Mental disorder A Posteriori Non-score Propensity score weighting/matching
PubMed 23674318 Inclusion of minorities and women in cancer clinical trials, a decade later: Have we improved? Cancer A Posteriori Non-score Comparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed 23845385 Using comparative effectiveness design to improve the generalizability of bipolar treatment trials data: contrasting LiTMUS baseline data with pre-existing placebo controlled trials. Mental disorder A Posteriori Non-score Comparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed 24594552 Representativeness of RELAX-AHF clinical trial population in acute heart failure. Cardiovascular diseases Both Non-score Comparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed 24627277 In and out, good and bad news, of generalizability of SWOG treatment trial results. Cancer A Posteriori Non-score Comparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed 24632781 Generalizability of findings from efficacy trials for chronic depression: an analysis of eligibility criteria. Mental disorder A Priori Non-score Comparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed 24647464 External validity of a trial comprised of elderly patients with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. Cancer A Posteriori Non-score Comparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed 24975869 External validity of the ARISTOTLE trial in real-life atrial fibrillation patients. Cardiovascular diseases Both Non-score Comparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed 25024761 A distribution-based method for assessing the differences between clinical trial target populations and patient populations in electronic health records. Not specified A Priori Score Comparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed 25100338 Assessing the external validity of a randomized controlled trial of anthelminthics in mothers and their children in Entebbe, Uganda. Digestive diseases A Posteriori Non-score Comparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed 25399847 Evaluating the generalizability of a large streamlined cardiovascular trial: comparing hospitals and patients in the dual antiplatelet therapy study versus the National Cardiovascular Data Registry. Cardiovascular diseases A Posteriori Non-score Comparing populations in clinical studies
Cochrane 25427819 Symptomatic chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in clinical trials and in a population-based study Respiratory diseases A Posteriori Non-score Comparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed 25664626 Baseline Characteristics and Mortality Outcomes of Control Group Participants and Eligible Non-Responders in the NELSON Lung Cancer Screening Study. Cancer A Posteriori Non-score Comparing populations in clinical studies
PsycINFO 25828873 Predicting participation in psychiatric randomized controlled trials: Insights from the STEP-BD. Mental disorder A Posteriori Non-score Comparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed 25986472 An Approach to Assess Generalizability in Comparative Effectiveness Research: A Case Study of the Whole Systems Demonstrator Cluster Randomized Trial Comparing Telehealth with Usual Care for Patients with Chronic Health Conditions. Not specified A Posteriori Non-score Comparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed 26174313 Similarities and differences between patients included and excluded from a randomized clinical trial of vitamin D supplementation for improving glucose tolerance in prediabetes: interpreting broader applicability. Endocrine disease A Posteriori Non-score Comparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed 26192398 Characteristics and Outcomes of Eligible Nonenrolled Patients in a Mechanical Ventilation Trial of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome. Respiratory diseases A Posteriori Non-score Comparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed 26283667 Exploring threats to generalisability in a large international rehabilitation trial (AVERT). Rehabilitation A Posteriori Non-score Comparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed 26330533 Clinical Trial Participants With Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Differ From Patients Treated in Real-World Practice. Cancer Both Non-score Comparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed 26362666 External validity of a randomised controlled trial on the treatment of severe infections caused by MRSA. Infection A Posteriori Non-score Comparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed 26562046 Generalizability of SPRINT Results to the U.S. Adult Population. Cardiovascular diseases A Priori Non-score Comparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed 26743093 How Generalizable Are the Results From Trials of Direct Antiviral Agents to People Coinfected With HIV/HCV in the Real World? HIV/AIDS A Priori Non-score Comparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed 26820188 Multivariate analysis of the population representativeness of related clinical studies. Not specified A Priori Score Comparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed 26825855 Assessing sample representativeness in randomized controlled trials: application to the National Institute of Drug Abuse Clinical Trials Network. Drug or alcohol abuse A Posteriori Non-score Standardized mean difference (SSMD) of propensity scores
PubMed 27033859 External validity of the "all-comers" design: insights from the BIOSCIENCE trial. Cardiovascular diseases A Posteriori Non-score Comparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed 27104965 Differences between unselected patients and participants in multiple myeloma clinical trials in US: a threat to external validity. Cancer A Posteriori Non-score Comparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed 27109827 Value of treatment in clinical trials versus the real world: the case of abiraterone acetate (Zytiga) for postchemotherapy metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer patients in Sweden. Cancer A Posteriori Non-score Comparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed 27283295 Baseline Characteristics and Generalizability of Participants in an Internet Smoking Cessation Randomized Trial. Smoking A Posteriori Non-score Comparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed 27520290 Older patients are still under-represented in clinical trials of Alzheimer's disease. Mental disorder A Posteriori Non-score Comparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed 27598694 Correlating eligibility criteria generalizability and adverse events using Big Data for patients and clinical trials. Not specified A Priori Score Comparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed 27600407 GIST 2.0: A scalable multi-trait metric for quantifying population representativeness of individual clinical studies. Not specified A Priori Score GIST 2.0
PubMed 27753599 External validity of a contemporaneous primary percutaneous coronary intervention trial in patients with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction: insights from a single-centre investigation. Cardiovascular diseases A Posteriori Non-score Comparing populations in clinical studies
PsycINFO 27863344 Selection criteria limit generalizability of smoking pharmacotherapy studies differentially across clinical trials and laboratory studies: A systematic review on varenicline. Smoking Both Non-score Comparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed 27638094 Generalizability of the Prostate Cancer Intervention Versus Observation Trial (PIVOT) Results to Contemporary North American Men with Prostate Cancer. Cancer A Posteriori Non-score Comparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed 27779514 Patient Eligibility for Randomized Controlled Trials in Critical Care Medicine: An International Two-Center Observational Study. Critical care Both Non-score Comparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed 27984524 Investigating generalizability of results from a randomized controlled trial of the management of chronic widespread pain: the MUSICIAN study. Pain A Posteriori Non-score Comparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed 28028598 A comparison of the MOMS trial results to a contemporaneous, single-institution, postnatal closure cohort. Neuronal diseases Both Non-score Comparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed 28118923 Computer-aided assessment of the generalizability of clinical trial results. Not specified A Posteriori Score Comparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed 28125858 Generalizability analysis for clinical trials: a simulation study. Not specified A Posteriori Score Propensity score weighting/matching
PubMed 28191694 Generalizability of findings from randomized controlled trials: application to the National Institute of Drug Abuse Clinical Trials Network. Drug or alcohol abuse A Posteriori Non-score Propensity score weighting/matching
PubMed 28230450 Characteristics and Medication Use of Psoriasis Patients Who May or May Not Qualify for Randomized Controlled Trials. Skin diseases A Priori Non-score Comparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed 28434933 Assessing the Eligibility Criteria in Phase III Randomized Controlled Trials of Drug Therapy in Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction: The Critical Play-Off Between a "Pure" Patient Phenotype and the Generalizability of Trial Findings. Cardiovascular diseases A Posteriori Non-score Comparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed 28511033 Comparing adult cannabis treatment-seekers enrolled in a clinical trial with national samples of cannabis users in the United States. Not specified A Posteriori Non-score Comparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed 28722466 Assessing the Generalizability of the National Lung Screening Trial: Comparison of Patients with Stage 1 Disease. Cancer A Posteriori Non-score Comparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed 28763313 Generalizability of EXCEL and NOBLE results to a large registry population with unprotected left main coronary artery disease. Cardiovascular diseases A Posteriori Non-score Propensity score weighting/matching
PubMed 28972695 Testing the external validity of EORTC 30904 comparing overall survival after radical nephrectomy vs nephron sparing surgery in contemporary North American patients with renal cell cancer. Cancer A Posteriori Non-score Comparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed 29025047 The representativeness of eligible patients in type 2 diabetes trials: a case study using GIST 2.0. Endocrine disease A Priori Score GIST 2.0
PubMed 29153885 Are the Results of the Prostate Testing for Cancer and Treatment Trial Applicable to Contemporary Prostate Cancer Patients Treated with Radical Prostatectomy? Results from Two High-volume European Institutions. Cancer A Posteriori Non-score Comparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed 29230192 External Validity of Randomized Controlled Trials on Alzheimer's Disease: The Biases of Frailty and Biological Aging. Mental disorder A Priori Non-score Comparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed 29241487 Surgical Versus Percutaneous Coronary Revascularization in Patients With Diabetes and Acute Coronary Syndromes. Cardiovascular diseases A Priori Non-score Propensity score weighting/matching
CINAHL 28963367 TREVO stent-retriever mechanical thrombectomy for acute ischemic stroke secondary to large vessel occlusion registry. Cardiovascular diseases A Posteriori Non-score Comparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed 29020193 Generalizing Randomized Clinical Trial Results: Implementation and Challenges Related to Missing Data in the Target Population. Cardiovascular diseases A Posteriori Non-score Comparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed 29097339 Comparable outcomes among trial and nontrial participants in a clinical trial of antibiotics for childhood pneumonia: a retrospective cohort study. Respiratory diseases A Posteriori Non-score Comparing populations in clinical studies
Cochrane 29288137 A prospective cohort and extended comprehensive-cohort design provided insights about the generalizability of a pragmatic trial: the ProtecT prostate cancer trial Cancer A Posteriori Non-score Comparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed 29426695 Only <10% of Patients Selected for Radical Prostatectomy Reach the Competing Mortality Rate of the Prostate Cancer Intervention Versus Observation Trial (PIVOT). Cancer A Posteriori Non-score Comparing populations in clinical studies
PsycINFO 29464791 Comparing pharmacological treatments for cocaine dependence: Incorporation of methods for enhancing generalizability in meta‐analytic studies Smoking A Posteriori Non-score Propensity score weighting/matching
PubMed 29569403 Generalizability of the findings from a randomized controlled trial of a web-based substance use disorder intervention. Mental disorder A Posteriori Non-score Propensity score weighting/matching
CINAHL 29569403 Generalizability of the findings from a randomized controlled trial of a web-based substance use disorder intervention. Drug or alcohol abuse A Posteriori Non-score Propensity score weighting/matching
CINAHL 29693361 Generalizability of Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonist Cardiovascular Outcome Trials Enrollment Criteria to the US Type 2 Diabetes Population. Endocrine disease Both Non-score Comparing populations in clinical studies
CINAHL 29701877 Nutrition Therapy in Australia and New Zealand Intensive Care Units: An International Comparison Study. Nutrition A Posteriori Non-score Comparing populations in clinical studies
CINAHL 29884343 An evaluation of race, ethnicity, age, and sex-based representation in phase I to II renal cell carcinoma clinical trials in the United States. Cancer A Posteriori Non-score Comparing populations in clinical studies
CINAHL 29895587 Characteristics and Treatments of Patients Enrolled in the CHAMP-HF Registry Compared With Patients Enrolled in the PARADIGM-HF Trial. Cardiovascular diseases A Posteriori Non-score Comparing populations in clinical studies
Cochrane 29944476 Outcomes after culprit-only percutaneous coronary intervention for multivessel disease during ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction: a comparison of registry and clinical trial outcomes Cardiovascular diseases A Posteriori Non-score Comparing populations in clinical studies
Cochrane 30001984 Multiple Myeloma Patients Ineligible for Randomized Controlled Trials Have Poorer Outcomes Irrespective of Treatment Cancer A Priori Non-score Comparing populations in clinical studies
CINAHL 30094623 Similar Sustained Virologic Response in Real-World and Clinical Trial Studies of Hepatitis C/Human Immunodeficiency Virus Coinfection. HIV/AIDS A Posteriori Non-score Comparing populations in clinical studies
CINAHL 30189998 Generalizing Intensive Blood Pressure Treatment to Adults With Diabetes Mellitus. Cardiovascular diseases A Posteriori Non-score Propensity score weighting/matching
PubMed 30221183 African American Screening and Enrollment in (Clot Lysis: Evaluating Accelerated Resolution of Intraventricular Hemorrhage III) CLEAR III. Neuronal diseases Both Non-score Comparing populations in clinical studies
PsycINFO 30373488 Representativeness of patients enrolled in a primary care clinical trial for heavy/problem substance use Drug or alcohol abuse A Posteriori Non-score Comparing populations in clinical studies
Cochrane 30415786 Implementing statistical methods for generalizing randomized trial findings to a target population Drug or alcohol abuse A Posteriori Non-score Propensity score weighting/matching
PubMed 30466715 Applicability of trials in rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis: A systematic review and meta-analysis of trial populations showing adequate proportion of women, but underrepresentation of elderly people. Musculoskeletal disease A Posteriori Non-score Comparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed 30477321 A data-zone scoring system to assess the generalizability of clinical trial results to individual patients. Not specified A Posteriori Score Comparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed 30555215 Generalizing Evidence from Randomized Trials using Inverse Probability of Sampling Weights. HIV/AIDS A Posteriori Non-score Propensity score weighting/matching
PubMed 30685675 Generalizability of the FOURIER trial to routine clinical care: Do trial participants represent patients in everyday practice? Cardiovascular diseases Both Non-score Comparing populations in clinical studies
CINAHL 30252687 Diagnostic Assessment of Assumptions for External Validity: An Example Using Data in Metastatic Colorectal Cancer. Cancer A Posteriori Non-score Propensity score weighting/matching
CINAHL 30312378 Comparison of Methods to Generalize Randomized Clinical Trial Results Without Individual-Level Data for the Target Population. Cardiovascular diseases A Posteriori Non-score Comparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed 30420256 Cytoreductive Nephrectomy: Assessing the Generalizability of the CARMENA Trial to Real-world National Cancer Data Base Cases. Cancer A Posteriori Non-score Comparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed 30673974 Generalizability of SPRINT-CKD cohort to CKD patients referred to renal clinics. Kidney disease A Posteriori Non-score Comparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed 30714309 Generalizability of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist cardiovascular outcome trials to the overall type 2 diabetes population in the United States. Cardiovascular diseases Both Non-score Comparing populations in clinical studies
Cochrane 30746585 Characteristics and Cardiovascular Disease Event Rates among African Americans and Whites Who Meet the Further Cardiovascular Outcomes Research with PCSK9 Inhibition in Subjects with Elevated Risk (FOURIER) Trial Inclusion Criteria Cardiovascular diseases A Posteriori Non-score Comparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed 30819552 Generalizability of the REDUCE-IT Trial in Patients With Stable Coronary Artery Disease. Cardiovascular diseases A Posteriori Non-score Comparing populations in clinical studies
PubMed 30822358 A Standardisation Approach to Compare Treatment Safety and Effectiveness Outcomes between Clinical Trials and Real World Populations in Psoriasis. Skin diseases A Posteriori Non-score Propensity score weighting/matching
CINAHL 30846172 Effect of prior cancer on trial eligibility and treatment outcomes in nasopharyngeal carcinoma: Implications for clinical trial accrual. Cancer A Priori Non-score Propensity score weighting/matching